Paranormal Activity: Metropol Parasol and other para-tech. By: Gonzalo Carrasco Purull + Pedro Livni.
At 18 pm last Sunday, March 27, the mayor of Seville, Alfredo Sanchez Monteseirín (PSOE) was inaugurated the project by the German architect Jürgen Mayer H. designed for the Plaza de la Encarnación, the Metropol Parasol . Proposal that won first place in the contest organized by the City Council in 2004, to give a final location to the main market of the city.
Popularly known as «mushrooms of the Incarnation”, the Metropol Parasol is built on the new archaeological museum in the city, which exhibits important pieces of Seville in Roman times. On this historical foundation, is that stand six structures or «umbrellas» that shape a pergola of160 meters long,80 meters wide and30 meters high. In its top – where the umbrellas are connected – is located on a terrace which houses a restaurant and a walkway, from which have panoramic views across the city.
But why do we need to stop at the Metropol-Parasol? Is it for the deployment of a repertoire of highly complex forms? Is it because of the lateness of the technologies that have been implemented to its construction? Or is it because of its role of urban activities within the town ofSeville?
No, the fascination behind the Metropol Parasol is based on a fact that the flash might have left it opened to see clearly. Metropol Parasol is perhaps the first work that has eliminated the agents of mediation between the project and built work.
Traditionally between the project and the work was a process of accommodation, which led to a series of negotiations between the project, location, technologies available, a budget and between accidents, failures and modifications on site, which building did something similar but radically different representations. However, Metropol Parasol is constituted as pure representation, a work without mediation. A work that is about pure ideation tremendously, where the building is a paradoxical entity idealization and immanence. The differences between the model exhibited at the MOMA and the work is located in the Plaza de la Encarnación, just down differences of degree, or at best, of scale. But this understood primarily as magnitude, size measurement referenced to the viewer from the plaza under umbrellas in a photo glossy paper, or in the phosphorescence of the pixels on a screen.
While construction in architecture resulted in available means that helped to produce a work-at Metropol Parasol those relationships become weak and diffuse, making the end become the means, and vice versa. And this point is central, because it redefines the place that fits the technology (or techniques) in the construction of architecture. Technology in the Metropol Parasol is no longer understood solely as the means available for the production of architecture, but these are constituted mainly of a terminal station, the end, the fate of the work. Thus, the Metropol Parasol, and also opens another question is about the purpose of the technologies used in contemporary architecture. Where ever become as mere instruments and tools as possible to a purely objective. So are we still calling this technology? Can you conceive of a technology not instrumental, but conceived as pure purpose?
The year 1837 is built at the old market of the Incarnation, which became the first permanent market hall inSeville. This place came with the passage of time, the main center of trade and economic development of the city. This situation continued until 1970, when it approved the demolition of the building. A fact that the year 1973 forced the merchants of the old square to move to temporary facilities adjacent to the site. Place where they remained until the construction of the Metropol-Parasol.
Over time – and then the transfer of traders – the area suffered a severe deterioration and neglect. What made it even came to study in the nineties, the possibility of constructing on-site underground parking.
From the year 2003 and proceeds from the realization of a series of archaeological excavations at the site is that it uncovered the archaeological remains that today is the largest Roman site inSeville.
Thus, taking these facts as the framework is that by 2004 an initiative was taken by the council, to call a contest of ideas. Which had as main objective to propose a solution to the provisional status in which they were the merchants of the Plaza de la Encarnación, delivering a proposal for the precession and exhibition of recently discovered Roman remains, and in addition to the project a development center that would benefit not only to that sector of the city, but all Sevilla.
The contest of ideas – to which 65 entries were submitted – was international. The jury was composed of architects Toyo Ito, Herzog & DeMeuron and Alejandro Zaera-Polo, as well as some representatives of universities. The contest rules stipulated as a condition the requirement to build a food market, a public square and an archaeological museum, well preserved Roman remains discovered at the site. From all entries, Jürgen Mayer’s proposal – which was not supported by a technical report – was the one with a bigger budget, which board at the time the 33 million euros.
Mayer’s proposal is organized through four levels, its main feature, the presence of six double-curvature parasols. These elements are constructed by double Kerto ® structural frame, and their heights ranging between 20 and26 meters high, surpassing the horizon set by the cornices of the buildings adjacent to the Plaza de la Encarnación.
At least one level, lies the «Antiquarium» museum displaying the archaeological remains that reconstruct the life, society and everyday life of ancient Hispalis. The zero level is occupied by a covered plaza which connects withBridge Street, Pellon andRegina. At this level is where it is located besides the food market, occupying a floor space of836 m2 with a capacity to accommodate 40 stalls. Besides these, there is an area designed to accommodate the various activities associated with the market, such as design of loading and unloading areas, changing rooms, toilets, storage areas and garbage removal, refrigerators as well as all areas intended forthe location of the facility. +1 Level corresponds to the elevated plaza, a public space in an area of over3,000 m2. This is a working space both day and night. By day, provides for the operation of water sources – once put into operation – are designed to improve the climate comfort of the square. The installation of a series of street furniture, this level aims to make an attractive place to rest and contemplate the city. Moreover, the elevated plaza at night is lit from the sun visors, making this place a platform available to host various cultural activities and public. Finally, the level +2 is the place where lies the panoramic terrace or balcony, a facility that aims to democratize the views of the Giralda, which so far are enjoyed exclusively by the owners of the upper floors of buildings center ofSeville.
Moreover, the shape of the «mushrooms» or umbrellas are justified through the formulation of an analogy with a rubber plants that grow in the Plaza Cristo de Burgos, in the vicinity of the project.
The project – but ended up being built in Kerto ® – at first thought was steel. To realize that the images presented by Mayer’s team competitions in which the umbrellas appear constructed from a delicate filigree metal. An element which passes not only subdued light, but also enables the emergence of partial views of the immediate surroundings of the square. However, the possibility of constructing the project following a design created by architects, was soon discarded, proving to be too expensive. Thus, the architectural team – in collaboration with the engineering firm Ove Arup – developed alternatives, finally reaching the one that appeared as the most plausible: a three dimensional structure of Kerto ® supported on a sub-structure of concrete and steel.
Wood – the main element of Kerto ® – was achieved at a reasonable price, an attractive addition to their material characteristics as a «renewable», which can be easily processed into items such as Mayer said «have a great acceptance part of most of the public. »
A grid of 1.50 x1.50 meters consisting Kerto ® plates with a thickness ranging between 68 and311 mm, are responsible for shaping the «mushroom.» To give the structure a homogeneous appearance and also protect the wood from the aggression of environmental agents is that they protect each of the components by applying polyurethane plates3 mm thick sand-colored . Only items Kerto ® reach a total of 3,400 pieces, which also need about over 3,000 connectors. Kerto ® parts larger reach 16,50 meters, corresponding to those that help shape the trunks of columns, umbrellas.
Considering the high stress to which it is submitted the structure – especially in areas where blown up – is to use a hybrid structure through which the efforts of compression wood are combined with elements of acting tensile steel.
This is an important point that distinguishes the structure-Metropol Parasol. Although they are constructed from a super-material such as Kerto ®, the super-fragmentation of the components of the structure, makes this is made up of discrete elements. Fact that makes much of the shear stresses are absorbed by the steel connectors.Moreover, the short length of wood elements and lack of continuity, make the behavior Kerto ® has a very weak against bending – a fundamental feature otherwise the wood – so these efforts are absorbed tensors steel, increasing the total weight of the structure.
The components of the structure of the Metropol Parasol «were manufactured in the workshops of the firm Finnforest Merk, at its headquarters inAichach,Germany (http://www.finnforest.de). Where – and according to 3D models provided by the architects – the pieces were cut by robots, in sections of one meter on average. The total volume of Kerto ® manufactured by Finnforest Merk to build the Metropol Parasol, was approximately2,500 m3.
The Kerto ® is developed by Finnforest Merk known for its high strength and stiffness, which is manufactured in panels which are connected through the use of studs. The Kerto ® has among its main features, offer high structural strength, coupled with the generation of components of a large slenderness. The Kerto ® it carries a huge exhibit tensile strength, high flexural strength and good resistance to compression.
This material is a special kind of laminated veneer lumber. Consists of several layers of wood of conifers, mostly spruce wood for expoter by the same company Finnforest Merk from its own reserves located inFinland. The sheets are cut to maintain a thickness of3 mm thick, which are then glued together by a continuous process, where boards disappear. This feature in the manufacturing process Kerto ® is one that allows large panels to be fitted with a large structural stability. The manufacture of small parts therefore, involves a waste of one of the fundamental characteristics of this material: its cohesion.
Once cut veneers are dried in the oven. After drying the plates are glued, using a type of non-toxic glue and water resistant (LVL Kerto-Q). Once veneers are glued together, are stacked to be hot-pressed later. Then sized, are divided into cells, to finally be stored.
Kerto ® panels are manufactured keeping in check the moisture content of wood, reaching 9 percent, thus avoiding the appearance of deformations and the resulting shrinkage cracks. This product is produced as well as reaching a weight (500 kg / m3), which makes it suitable for transportation, facilitating its assembly.
One of the strengths of Kerto ® is applied to the project Metropol Parasol relates to the possibility of this material to be manufactured in large continuous pieces, these can reach23 meters in length. A valuable advantage that translates into a decrease in the courts and therefore the joints and connectors required to assemble the structure, which affects the total weight of the structure. One feature that also lowers the processes behind the assembly, reducing construction time. Thereby lowering construction costs and improving sustainable features of the processes required for assembly.
Both the determination of the geometry of the elements of Kerto ®, as its location in the work, operations were coordinated by architects through the use of 3D models and templates in Excel format, information that was read in a CAD program.
The draft Mayer – whose motto is «From the depths of history, to the view of Sevilla from above» – even before its opening has been considered one of the icons of the century just begun. He was awarded the bronze medal contest Holcim Awards for sustainable projects in 2005 (http://www.holcimfoundation.org) and was exhibited at MoMA in New York in 2006 along with 35 other projects in the exhibition «On- Site: New Architecture in Spain.”
The construction of the project was awarded to the company Sacyr, which also earned the award of the project for a period of 40 years. According to plan at the beginning, the project works were Metropol Parasol as the starting date in late 200.This, in order to complete the works before the municipal elections of May 2007.However, the start of construction was postponed until the autumn of 2005.
Delays in the construction of the Metropol Parasol appeared as early as 2006, when jobs were arrested six months as a result of the demands made by the Ministry of Culture, which apply conducting a series of amendments to the archaeological museum project. In late 2006, the rains forced to stop work for three months. A period of inactivity that would add to the two months spent to clear the area of the square, on the occasion of the celebrations of Holy Week 2007. However, it was not until May of that same year emerged as the principal problem: the architects, engineers and construction company did not know how to build the project, whose images had been submitted to the contest. More specifically, no one was able to fix the wooden components. Thus – and to develop technology that would make the project viable – is that the works were detained for a period exceeding one year.
Before awarding the project to Sacyr, the City had to suspend a project for the site developed by Martin Castillo, who had already begun to build. Thus, the Planning Department had to pay in terms of compensation due to stoppage of the project a sum of nine million euros.
Then, the Parasol Metropol-budget increased from 33 million to 51 initial costs that were absorbed equally between the City and lal Sacyr. However, the budget continued to rise, reaching the end of 2010 to an amount close to EUR 90 million: 75 percent of the initial budget. Of all the remaining supplements has taken over the government.
Already in 2008 the Planning Department approved the first supplement to the budget-Metropol Parasol with a total of 8.5 million euros. Amount to which you add another 17 million at the beginning of that year, an amount that would increase further with a contribution in May 2010 of 13 million euros, supplements totaling 30 million euros. Of these increases to the budget, more than 17 million were earmarked for the construction of the roof of the visors, particularly as regards the system of union between the pieces of wood. Eight and a half million euros were allocated to the project instead of museology. The remaining amount was spent on urban improvements, such as modification of the pavement, relocation of business premises, equipment used for power and safety issues, such as increasing the height of the rails and load tests.
At the request of the City Clerk and the Advisory Council is that it demanded an investigation to determine responsibility in the project budget increases-Metropol Parasol. While the mayor Monteseirín been identified as primarily responsible for Sacyr and architect Mayer, blames the City Clerk not have stopped the project in 2007 – the year when the project’s viability was questioned – but on the Otherwise, have urged practitioners to find ways «at any cost» of building design as planned.
But stop-Metropol Parasol project was not free operation. Disbursements meant compensation a sum of 21.5 million euros. Reason was that the mayor Monteseirín continue with works by absorbing the remaining City Council budget increases.
In the opening speech of the works, Mayor Alfredo Sanchez Monteseirín related to space-Metropol Parasol as a fact which «opens the door to economic progress and development of a sector of the city was in decline, some urban areas now recover the centrality of knowledge at a time «, where» what for decades has been a crossing point, now is a place of attraction. » To the mayor attraction transcends the same city where «what development burgeoned and depersonalized, now in a turn of our own creative personality, the XXI century Seville makes it an amazing urban space, far beyond the borders. » A vacuum within which, the Metropol Parasol «implies a new city as» Sevilla can not be the fantasy of an idealized past or future, the small, provincial Vetusta. »
The mayor’s speech where he thanked to have «the privilege of attending the opening of the XXI Century Seville» – ended with a concert featuring the Symphony Orchestra, which played as part ofSeville opera «Carmen» by Bizet «La Vida Breve» by Manuel de Falla and The Marriage of Jerome Alonso «by Albéniz. For its part, the Orchestra and Chorus of theUniversity ofSeville interpreted the fourth and fifth movement of the Ninth Symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven.
If, Sevilla and fully entered the XXI century.
Para-technology, para-tech, parasol.
The prefix «para-« means «beside», «outside», as well as «against.» So we can try to call an instrumental technology is not conceived as purely objective, as a «para-technology» or «para-tech.» A media technology made that are located «next to» other technology – made media, instrumental – located on the same many times «outside» is, in border areas, border. A technology that modifying the order of ends and means, acting in opposition, «against» the common criteria that technology has been evaluated.
The para-tech therefore not be governed by criteria of efficiency, costs, time invested, number of operations required for implementation, of what might be called empirical evidence.
The para-tech not seek proven, but is evaluated on its «effects», according to the criteria used to measure the contemporary commercial transactions. The volatility of financial speculation – elusive, working with and from the risk – to oppose the objectification-markering the technology itself. Data, parameters or indexes, are not so objective values, but they must always be «interpreted» as the stock market values need to be translated to potential effects desirable or undesirable.
The para-tech while it may look similar to the technology, runs along a track parallel to it. Not advance, but simply moves. Therefore not looking at the possibility of improved experience, to admit mistakes and failures. The para-tech therefore has no memory, or if you have is very short term. Therefore does not handle background of previous experiences. Its parameters are just data account for a pure present.
However, the para-tech usually presented as new, the latest and also the inevitable. As their arguments are based on data recorded by the experience but because of its potential, its novelty lies in the difference, not the evolution that is a form of repetition. The para-tech always so unique, is the exception, the particular, the rarest bird. The para-tech is the dodo bird, the mermaid and the unicorn, is classified therefore not in families or species, but according to the peculiarity of the bestiary.
The para-tech by the same thought and made from the edges of the margins. Moves in the overlapping disciplines. You can take any form of marginalization. Since the guerrillas to the exclusivity of the elite. The para-tech never massive, it seeks to reach all of society, but a portion of it. While the technology seeks to solve – or at least create a desire for this – the para- tech has the cold desire of chance encounters.
The practice of para-tech is a work of opposition, which continually works against the laws that govern reality. Everything about her is hard, hard work, away from all that appears to be simple. The para-tech is therefore muscle work, no brain. There is a cool physics, but physics is hot as that found in gyms. The para-tech always for the same effort, energy expenditure. He discovered in the waste, in excess. Acts on the same saturation, accumulation of efforts, resources employed, the budget spent. Physics for para-tech is physics constructed of steroids, energy bars and supplements.
By making the media for the para-tech has no limits of growth. It can be as large as is allowed. The para-tech away from miniaturization, suffers from elephants. The para-tech is Gulliver in Lilliput, and voracious as Pantagruel.
The para-tech enjoys full autonomy, self-respect and like to listen to herself. The para-tech means the same thing from their reflections from their representations. Is Narcissus by the pool. The diagram, model, exhibition, publication, are ways in which it replicates itself, following the mirror effect of the mirrors inside a lift or in a linen tester.
The para-tech usually stated as a paracronism: claims to have appeared before you actually have happened. Love the genealogies and relationships. The para-tech therefore has many parents, although his mother is always unknown. Its strength lies precisely to appear with multiple names and multiple origins.
The para-tech works from the paradox, as unresolved. Not resolved, not resolved, only formula. And as a paradox, often appearing as a strange idea, as opposed to the common feelings of the people. Despite often appear as implausible and absurd, always looking for ways to show as possible, as ideas dressed in the guise of truth. Therefore, the para-tech always works from the contradiction.
The para-tech reaches its best performance at the conclusion, in the ceremonies. His place is paraphernalia. Therefore, is often found in the society pages, shows, entertainment newspapers. The para-tech looking pictures almost always formalized in paradise. Nature and artifice so for the para-tech diluted in the drill. Mimetic weakly, the para-tech not seek to unravel the laws and logic of nature, but rather become a weak reflection of its forms. A distorted echo, a record full of interference. White noise.
Unlike the technology – which aims to expand instrumental human capabilities – the para-tech works closer to the prosthesis that tools or orthopedics. As a stent, the para-tech need a body, which is a resident. His behavior is the implant, injection of botox. Work strain, swelling, transformation, displacement, extension.
The way it is implemented is a process – or series of processes – following the logic of the parasite. Guest and resident set and often exploitative relations of wear. A constant battle, problematic, full of friction, but never resolved. A conflict in which the para-tech -host context absorb energy and resources to be possible, taking care not to weaken that if so much to do die or disappear.
The para-tech to be many times from concepts, ideas, images or metaphors, whose strength – and weakness – in the construction of a fixed idea. That is why we can say that the para-tech as a mental process, is a kind of paranoia. As a mental disturbance around a fixed idea para-tech will resist any modifications.The reality must necessarily accommodate the para-tech, never backward. As paranoia, the para-tech not meant to be shown, does not appeal to logic, it is never reasonable. As paranoia, is highly individual. Little help to explain the reasons, rather – and this is fully paranoid – must be translated into emotions, feelings, visions, colors, textures and sounds.
As paranoid thinking, the para-tech not worked since the abnormal, but rather from the paranormal. It works with and from the phenomena. Scientifically inexplicable phenomena, but yet – and if you have the instrumentations – can be «aware» but not measured. Phenomena that often take on the consistency of a fleeting ghost.Phenomena that make the para-tech and architecture that help produce an ectoplasmic entity. Consistency where the ends are the means and vice versa.
Metropol Parasol, paranoid, paranormal, para-tech, parasitosis, paraphilia.VKPK.